Science, Politics, Economics, and Religion
in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and
Standard(s) of Learning
||The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by
||assessing the impacts of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on democracy;
||explaining the political, religious, and social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways in which they influenced the founders of the United States;
Explain that political democracy rests on the principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed. The foundations of English freedoms included the jury trial, the Magna Carta, and common law. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen.
Summarize how the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution promoted the development of the rights of Englishmen. Use the following information as a guide:
• Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I
• The restoration of Charles II
• Development of political parties/factions
• Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)
• Increase of parliamentary power over royal power
• English Bill of Rights of 1689
Explain that Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government.
Explain that Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
Describe the Enlightenment, using the following information as a guide:
• Applied reason to the human world, not just the natural world
• Stimulated religious tolerance
• Fueled democratic revolutions around the world
Identify some Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas, using the following information as a guide:
• Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan—The state must have central authority to manage behavior.
• John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government—People are sovereign; God does not choose monarchs.
• Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws—The best form of government includes a separation of powers.
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract—Government is a contract between rulers and the people.
• Voltaire—Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; government should ensure separation of church and state
Explain how philosophers of the Enlightenment influenced thinking on political ideas. Also, explain how the Enlightenment promoted revolution in the American colonies. Use the following information as a guide:
• Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.
• Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
• The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
Below is an annotated list of Internet resources for this organizing topic. Copyright restrictions may exist for the material on some Web sites. Please note and abide by any such restrictions.
The Avalon Project at YaleLawSchool. <http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/england.asp>. This site provides a copy of the English Bill of Rights.
“Founding Documents.” The Constitution Society. <http://www.constitution.org/cs_found.htm>.
“Jean-Jacques Rousseau.” The European Enlightenment. Washington State University. <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ROUSSEAU.HTM>. This site provides biographical information on Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
“John Locke.” The History of Western Philosophy. Oregon State University. <http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/locke.html>. This site provides biographical information on John Locke.
“Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws, 1748.” Modern History Sourcebook. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/montesquieu-spirit.html>. This site provides information on the life and writing of Montesquieu.
“Oliver Cromwell. The History Channel. <http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=206803>. This site provides biographical information on Oliver Cromwell.
“Restoration of Charles II.” Encyclopedia.com. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-RestorEng.html>. This site provides information on the restoration of Charles II to power in England.
“Thomas Hobbes.” The History of Western Philosophy. Oregon State University. <http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/philosophers/hobbes.html>. This site provides biographical information on Thomas Hobbes.
Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments for the 2001 History and Social Science Standards of Learning: History and Social Science Released Items for World History II. Virginia Department of Education, 2003/04. <http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/Release2003/History/VA-RIBs_g11wh2-1.pdf>.
Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments for the 2001 History and Social Science Standards of Learning. World History and Geography: 1500 a.d. to the Present. Test Blueprint. Virginia Department of Education, 2003/04.<http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/HistoryBlueprints03/2002Blueprint7WHI.pdf>. This site provides assessment information for World History and Geography: 1500 a.d. to the Present.
“William III and Mary II.” Britannia. <http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon51.html>. This site provides information on the reign of William III and Mary II.